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Ordner überwachen und Befehl ausführen, wenn sich dort eine Datei befindet?

Ich hätte gerne meinen Ubuntu-Monitor Folder A. Wenn sich dort eine .sh -Datei befindet, möchte ich diese Datei in Folder B verschieben und im Hintergrund ausführen. Ist das möglich? Was soll ich verwenden, um es zu verwirklichen?

3
Ignacio

Sie haben einige Möglichkeiten:

1. Inotifywait verwenden

#!/bin/bash
# set path to watch
DIR="/path/to/sourcedir"
# set path to copy the script to
target_dir="/path/to/targetdir"

inotifywait -m -r -e moved_to -e create "$DIR" --format "%f" | while read f

do
    echo $f
    # check if the file is a .sh file
    if [[ $f = *.sh ]]; then
      # if so, copy the file to the target dir
      mv "$DIR/$f" "$target_dir"
      # and rum it
      /bin/bash "$target_dir/$f" &
    fi
done

Erklärung zu inotifywait

Optionen einstellen

Um weiterhin zu protokollieren, müssen Sie die Option -m setzen:

von man inotifywait:

-m, --monitor
    Instead of exiting after receiving a single event, execute indefinitely. The default behaviour is to exit after the first event occurs. 

Um sich rekursiv anzumelden, müssen Sie die Option -r setzen:

-r, --recursive
    Watch all subdirectories of any directories passed as arguments. Watches will be set up recursively to an unlimited depth. Symbolic links are not traversed. Newly created subdirectories will also be watched. 

Wenn Sie keine rekursive Überwachung benötigen, entfernen Sie die Option.

Ereignisse

Außerdem müssen Sie Ereignisse angeben , um Folgendes auszulösen:

EVENTS
       The following events are valid for use with the -e option:

       access A  watched  file  or  a file within a watched directory was read
              from.

       modify A watched file or a file within a watched directory was  written
              to.

       attrib The metadata of a watched file or a file within a watched direc‐
              tory was modified.  This includes timestamps, file  permissions,
              extended attributes etc.

       close_write
              A  watched file or a file within a watched directory was closed,
              after being opened in writeable mode.  This does not necessarily
              imply the file was written to.

       close_nowrite
              A  watched file or a file within a watched directory was closed,
              after being opened in read-only mode.

       close  A watched file or a file within a watched directory was  closed,
              regardless  of  how  it  was opened.  Note that this is actually
              implemented  simply  by  listening  for  both  close_write   and
              close_nowrite, hence all close events received will be output as
              one of these, not CLOSE.

       open   A watched file or a file within a watched directory was opened.

       moved_to
              A file or directory was moved into a  watched  directory.   This
              event  occurs  even  if the file is simply moved from and to the
              same directory.

       moved_from
              A file or directory was moved from a  watched  directory.   This
              event  occurs  even  if the file is simply moved from and to the
              same directory.

       move   A file or directory was moved from or to  a  watched  directory.
              Note  that  this is actually implemented simply by listening for
              both moved_to and moved_from, hence all  close  events  received
              will be output as one or both of these, not MOVE.

       move_self
              A  watched  file  or  directory was moved. After this event, the
              file or directory is no longer being watched.

       create A file or directory was created within a watched directory.

       delete A file or directory within a watched directory was deleted.

       delete_self
              A watched file or directory was deleted.  After this  event  the
              file  or  directory  is no longer being watched.  Note that this
              event can occur even if it is not explicitly being listened for.

       unmount
              The filesystem on which a watched file or directory resides  was
              unmounted.   After this event the file or directory is no longer
              being watched.  Note that this event can occur even if it is not
              explicitly being listened to.

Sie müssen jedem Ihrer auszulösenden Ereignisse -e voranstellen:

-e moved_to -e create

Natürlich können Sie jeden Ereignisauslöser aus der Liste einstellen.

Mit der Option --format "%f" geben wir den Dateinamen aus, den wir zum Kopieren und Ausführen der Datei verwenden, kombiniert mit dem Pfade setzen.

Wie benutzt man

  1. Installieren Sie inotify-tools

    Sudo apt-get install intotify-tools
    
  2. Kopieren Sie das Skript in eine leere Datei und speichern Sie es als watch_dir.sh

  3. Legen Sie im Kopf des Skripts fest, in welches Verzeichnis die Skripts überwacht und in welches kopiert werden sollen
  4. Führen Sie es aus, und es beginnt, Ihr Verzeichnis zu überwachen.

2. Mit Python

Ohne etwas extra zu installieren, können wir dasselbe jedoch mit einem kleinen python Skript machen:

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import subprocess
import os
import time
import shutil

source = "/path/to/sourcedir"
target = "/path/to/targetedir"
files1 = os.listdir(source)

while True:
    time.sleep(2)
    files2 = os.listdir(source)
    # see if there are new files added
    new = [f for f in files2 if all([not f in files1, f.endswith(".sh")])]
    # if so:
    for f in new:
        # combine paths and file
        trg = os.path.join(target, f)
        # copy the file to target
        shutil.move(os.path.join(source, f), trg)
        # and run it
        subprocess.Popen(["/bin/bash", trg])
        print(trg)
    files1 = files2

Wie benutzt man

  1. Kopieren Sie das Skript in eine leere Datei und speichern Sie es als watch_dir.py
  2. Legen Sie im Kopf des Skripts fest, dass sowohl das Verzeichnis überwacht als auch die Skripts kopiert werden sollen (source, target).
  3. Führen Sie es aus, und es beginnt, Ihr Verzeichnis zu überwachen.

Hinweis

Bei beiden oben genannten Optionen wird davon ausgegangen, dass die Skripte keine Argumente benötigen. Dies ist jedoch bei einem solchen Setup offensichtlich der Fall.

5
Jacob Vlijm