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Bitmap-Datei in Struktur einlesen

Ich möchte eine Bitmap-Datei in eine Struktur einlesen und sie wie einen Spiegeleffekt usw. bearbeiten, kann jedoch nicht nachvollziehen, welche Art von Struktur ich erstellen soll, um sie einzulesen.

Danke für deine Hilfe

22
Ege

"So laden Sie maually eine bmp-Datei

Das Bitmap-Dateiformat: Bitmap-Datei-Header Bitmap-Info-Header-Palettendaten Bitmap Dada

so weiter mit dem Code-Teil, das ist unsere Struktur, die wir erstellen müssen, um den Bitmap-Datei-Header aufzunehmen

#pragma pack(Push, 1)

typedef struct tagBITMAPFILEHEADER
{
    Word bfType;  //specifies the file type
    DWORD bfSize;  //specifies the size in bytes of the bitmap file
    Word bfReserved1;  //reserved; must be 0
    Word bfReserved2;  //reserved; must be 0
    DWORD bfOffBits;  //species the offset in bytes from the bitmapfileheader to the bitmap bits
}BITMAPFILEHEADER;

#pragma pack(pop)

das Feld bftype prüft, ob Sie tatsächlich eine bmp-Datei laden und ob das Feld 0x4D42 sein sollte.

Jetzt müssen wir unsere Bitmapinfoheader-Struktur erstellen. Hier finden Sie Informationen zu unserer Bitmap.

#pragma pack(Push, 1)

typedef struct tagBITMAPINFOHEADER
{
    DWORD biSize;  //specifies the number of bytes required by the struct
    LONG biWidth;  //specifies width in pixels
    LONG biHeight;  //species height in pixels
    Word biPlanes; //specifies the number of color planes, must be 1
    Word biBitCount; //specifies the number of bit per pixel
    DWORD biCompression;//spcifies the type of compression
    DWORD biSizeImage;  //size of image in bytes
    LONG biXPelsPerMeter;  //number of pixels per meter in x axis
    LONG biYPelsPerMeter;  //number of pixels per meter in y axis
    DWORD biClrUsed;  //number of colors used by th ebitmap
    DWORD biClrImportant;  //number of colors that are important
}BITMAPINFOHEADER;

#pragma pack(pop)

Nun zum Laden unserer Bitmap

unsigned char *LoadBitmapFile(char *filename, BITMAPINFOHEADER *bitmapInfoHeader)
{
    FILE *filePtr; //our file pointer
    BITMAPFILEHEADER bitmapFileHeader; //our bitmap file header
    unsigned char *bitmapImage;  //store image data
    int imageIdx=0;  //image index counter
    unsigned char tempRGB;  //our swap variable

    //open filename in read binary mode
    filePtr = fopen(filename,"rb");
    if (filePtr == NULL)
        return NULL;

    //read the bitmap file header
    fread(&bitmapFileHeader, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER),1,filePtr);

    //verify that this is a bmp file by check bitmap id
    if (bitmapFileHeader.bfType !=0x4D42)
    {
        fclose(filePtr);
        return NULL;
    }

    //read the bitmap info header
    fread(bitmapInfoHeader, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER),1,filePtr); // small edit. forgot to add the closing bracket at sizeof

    //move file point to the begging of bitmap data
    fseek(filePtr, bitmapFileHeader.bfOffBits, SEEK_SET);

    //allocate enough memory for the bitmap image data
    bitmapImage = (unsigned char*)malloc(bitmapInfoHeader->biSizeImage);

    //verify memory allocation
    if (!bitmapImage)
    {
        free(bitmapImage);
        fclose(filePtr);
        return NULL;
    }

    //read in the bitmap image data
    fread(bitmapImage,bitmapInfoHeader->biSizeImage,filePtr);

    //make sure bitmap image data was read
    if (bitmapImage == NULL)
    {
        fclose(filePtr);
        return NULL;
    }

    //swap the r and b values to get RGB (bitmap is BGR)
    for (imageIdx = 0;imageIdx < bitmapInfoHeader->biSizeImage;imageIdx+=3) // fixed semicolon
    {
        tempRGB = bitmapImage[imageIdx];
        bitmapImage[imageIdx] = bitmapImage[imageIdx + 2];
        bitmapImage[imageIdx + 2] = tempRGB;
    }

    //close file and return bitmap iamge data
    fclose(filePtr);
    return bitmapImage;
}

Um dies alles zu nutzen:

BITMAPINFOHEADER bitmapInfoHeader;
unsigned char *bitmapData;
...
bitmapData = LoadBitmapFile("mypic.bmp",&bitmapInfoHeader);
//now do what you want with it, later on i will show you how to display it in a normal window

Später werde ich ein to bmp schreiben und wie man eine Targa-Datei lädt und wie man sie anzeigt. "

Zitiert von: http://www.vbforums.com/showthread.php?261522-CC-Loading-Bitmap-Files-%28Manually%29 (Benutzer: Betrachter von). (Einige kleinere Korrekturen vorgenommen)

28
ollo

hier Ein kurzes Arbeitsbeispiel.

Es konvertiert eine WAV-Datei in BMP (vor langer Zeit hatte ich so viel Spaß).

Code:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <sndfile.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

#define RATE 44100

typedef struct {
    unsigned short type;                 /* Magic identifier            */
    unsigned int size;                       /* File size in bytes          */
    unsigned int reserved;
    unsigned int offset;                     /* Offset to image data, bytes */
} HEADER;
typedef struct {
    unsigned int size;               /* Header size in bytes      */
    int width,height;                /* Width and height of image */
    unsigned short planes;       /* Number of colour planes   */
    unsigned short bits;         /* Bits per pixel            */
    unsigned int compression;        /* Compression type          */
    unsigned int imagesize;          /* Image size in bytes       */
    int xresolution,yresolution;     /* Pixels per meter          */
    unsigned int ncolours;           /* Number of colours         */
    unsigned int importantcolours;   /* Important colours         */
} INFOHEADER;
typedef struct {
    unsigned char r,g,b,junk;
} COLOURINDEX;


int main(int argc, char *argv[]){
    int i,j,rd;
    int gotindex = 0;
    unsigned char grey,r,g,b;
    double ampl;
    short _2byte[2];
    HEADER header;
    INFOHEADER infoheader;
    COLOURINDEX colourindex[256];
    FILE *fptr; 
    SNDFILE* sndfile = NULL;
    SF_INFO sfinfo;
    long rate = RATE;

    void (*bmpread)();
    void _eightbit(){
        if(fread(&grey, sizeof(unsigned char), 1, fptr) != 1){
        fprintf(stderr,"Image read failed\n");
        exit(-1);
        }
        if (gotindex){
            ampl =  colourindex[grey].r * 64. +
                colourindex[grey].g * 128.+
                colourindex[grey].b * 64.;
        } else {
            ampl = grey * 256. - 32768.;
        }
//      printf("%.2f\n", ampl);
    }
    void _twentyfourbit(){
        do{
            if((rd = fread(&b, sizeof(unsigned char), 1, fptr)) != 1) break;
            if((rd = fread(&g, sizeof(unsigned char), 1, fptr)) != 1) break;
            if((rd = fread(&r, sizeof(unsigned char), 1, fptr)) != 1) break;
        }while(0);
        if(rd != 1){    
            fprintf(stderr,"Image read failed\n");
            exit(-1);
        }
        ampl = r * 64. + g * 128. + b * 64. - 32768.;
//      printf("%.2f\n", ampl);
    }
    if (argc < 3){
        printf("Usage: %s <input.bmp> <output.wav> [samplerate]\n", argv[0]);
        printf("For example:\n\t%s pict.bmp sample.wav 44100 2\n", argv[0]);
        exit(0);
    }
    printf("Input file: %s\n", argv[1]);
    printf("Output file: %s\n", argv[2]);
    if(argc > 3) rate = atoi(argv[3]);
    if(rate < 4000) rate = 4000;
    //if(argc > 4) channels = atoi(argv[4]);        
    sfinfo.samplerate = rate;
    sfinfo.channels = 2;
    sfinfo.format = SF_FORMAT_WAV|SF_FORMAT_PCM_16;
    if((fptr = fopen(argv[1],"r")) == NULL) {
        fprintf(stderr,"Unable to open BMP file \"%s\"\n",argv[1]);
        exit(-1);
    }
        /* Read and check BMP header */
    if(fread(&header.type, 2, 1, fptr) != 1){
        fprintf(stderr, "Failed to read BMP header\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
    if(header.type != 'M'*256+'B'){
        fprintf(stderr, "File is not bmp type\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
    do{
        if((rd = fread(&header.size, 4, 1, fptr)) != 1) break;
        printf("File size: %d bytes\n", header.size);
        if((rd = fread(&header.reserved, 4, 1, fptr)) != 1) break;
        if((rd = fread(&header.offset, 4, 1, fptr)) != 1) break;
        printf("Offset to image data is %d bytes\n", header.offset);
    }while(0);
    if(rd =! 1){
        fprintf(stderr, "Error reading file\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
    /* Read and check the information header */
    if (fread(&infoheader, sizeof(INFOHEADER), 1, fptr) != 1) {
        fprintf(stderr,"Failed to read BMP info header\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
    printf("Image size = %d x %d\n", infoheader.width, infoheader.height);
    printf("Number of colour planes is %d\n", infoheader.planes);
    printf("Bits per pixel is %d\n", infoheader.bits);
    printf("Compression type is %d\n", infoheader.compression);
    printf("Number of colours is %d\n", infoheader.ncolours);
    printf("Number of required colours is %d\n", infoheader.importantcolours);
    /* Read the lookup table if there is one */
    for (i=0; i<255; i++){
        colourindex[i].r = Rand() % 256;
        colourindex[i].g = Rand() % 256;
        colourindex[i].b = Rand() % 256;
        colourindex[i].junk = Rand() % 256;
    }
    if (infoheader.ncolours > 0) {
        for (i=0; i<infoheader.ncolours; i++){
            do{
            if ((rd = fread(&colourindex[i].b, sizeof(unsigned char),1,fptr)) != 1)
                break;
            if ((rd = fread(&colourindex[i].g, sizeof(unsigned char),1,fptr)) != 1)
                break;
            if ((rd = fread(&colourindex[i].r, sizeof(unsigned char),1,fptr)) != 1)
                break;
            if ((rd = fread(&colourindex[i].junk, sizeof(unsigned char),1,fptr)) != 1)
                break;
            }while(0);
            if(rd != 1){
                fprintf(stderr,"Image read failed\n");
                exit(-1);
            }           
            printf("%3d\t%3d\t%3d\t%3d\n", i,
            colourindex[i].r, colourindex[i].g, colourindex[i].b);
        }
        gotindex = 1;
    }
    if(infoheader.bits < 8){
        printf("Too small image map depth (%d < 8)\n", infoheader.bits);
        exit(-1);
    }
    /* Seek to the start of the image data */
    fseek(fptr, header.offset, SEEK_SET);
    printf("Creating 16bit WAV %liHz.\n", rate);
    sndfile = sf_open(argv[2], SFM_WRITE, &sfinfo);
    if(sndfile == NULL){
        fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open output file!\n"); exit(-1);
    }
    bmpread = _eightbit;
    if(infoheader.bits == 24)
        bmpread = _twentyfourbit;

    /* Read the image */
    for (j=0;j<infoheader.height;j++) {
        _2byte[1] = 32700;
        for (i=0;i<infoheader.width;i++) {
            bmpread();
            _2byte[0] = (short)ampl;
            sf_write_short(sndfile, _2byte, 2);
            _2byte[1] = 0;
        } // i
    } // j
    fclose(fptr);
    sf_close(sndfile);
}
3
Eddy_Em